Carychium exile H. C. Lea, 1842 Ice Thorn
        Cochlicopa morseana (Doherty, 1878) Appalachian Pillar
        Columella simplex (Gould, 1841) Toothless Column
Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
        Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
Vertigo ventricosa (E. S. Morse, 1865) Five-tooth Vertigo+
Haplotrema concavum (Say, 1821) Gray-foot Lancetooth
Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
Helicodiscus shimeki Hubricht, 1962 Temperate Coil***
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail (figure 2)

Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail (figure two)

Novisuccinea ovalis (Say, 1817) Oval Ambersnail
Euconulus fulvus (Müller, 1774) Brown Hive
Mesomphix inornatus (Say, 1821) Plain Button (figure 3)

Mesomphix inornatus (Say, 1821) Plain Button (figure 3)     Euchemotrema fraternum (Say, 1821) Upland Pillsnail (figure 4)     Neohelix albolabris (Say, 1817) Whitelip (figure 5)

        Nesovitrea binneyana (E. S. Morse, 1864) Blue Glass
Paravitrea multidentata (A. Binney, 1841) Dentate Supercoil
Striatura exigua (Stimpson, 1850) Ribbed Striate
Striatura ferrea E. S. Morse, 1864 Black Striate
Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss
Euchemotrema fraternum (Say, 1821) Upland Pillsnail (figure 4)
Neohelix albolabris (Say, 1817) Whitelip (figure 7)

Triodopsis tridentata (Say, 1817) Northern Threetooth (figure 6)            Xolotrema denotatum (Férussac, 1821) Velvet Wedge (figure 7)

Triodopsis tridentata (Say, 1817) Northern Threetooth **** (figure 6)

Xolotrema denotatum (Férussac, 1821) Velvet Wedge (figure 5)

    Wanting to integrate these finds with prior work done in the neighborhood, I searched out my earlier collection records (same conventions; cumulative number for county species list in parentheses):
 
Deep in grass, along north side of driveway near North Road, The Homestead. H. Lee! 10/13/02:
Cochlicopa lubrica (Müller, 1774) Glossy Pillar (24)
Nesovitrea electrina (Gould, 1841) Amber Glass (25)
Zonitoides nitidus (Müller, 1774) Black Gloss (26)
 
Left Bank West Branch (of the Batten Kill),  south border of The Homestead, near old Rte. 7. H. Lee! 6/6/01:
Carychium exiguum (Say, 1822) Obese Thorn (27)
      Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud, 1801) Crested Vertigo (28)
Oxyloma retusum (I. Lea, 1834) Blunt Ambersnail (29)****
Zonitoides nitidus (Müller, 1774) Black Glass
 
Under log, upper pasture The Homestead, under four inches of snow H. Lee! 12/25/65:
Nesovitrea binneyana (E. S. Morse, 1864) Blue Glass
Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss
Vitrina angelicae Beck, 1837 Eastern Glass-snail (30)
 
Now back to the three localities near Pownal, Bennington Co., VT H. Lee! 1961:
Carychium exiguum (Say, 1822) Obese Thorn
Cochlicopa lubrica (Müller, 1774) Glossy Pillar
Gastrocopta armifera (Say, 1821) Armed Snaggletooth (31)
Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
Pupoides albilabris (C. B. Adams, 1841) White-lip Dagger (32)
Vertigo ovata Say, 1822 Ovate Vertigo (33)
Haplotrema concavum (Say, 1821) Gray-foot Lancetooth
Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
Helicodiscus parallelus (Say, 1817) Compound Coil (34)
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry, 1896) Angular Disc (35) (figures 9a and 9b)
 

Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry, 1896) Angular Disk

Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry, 1896) Angular Disk

 
Catinella vermeta (Say, 1829) Suboval Ambersnail (36)
Euconulus fulvus (Müller, 1774) Brown Hive
Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph (37)
Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem (38)
Mesomphix cupreus (Rafinesque, 1831) Copper Button (39)
Nesovitrea electrina (Gould, 1841) Amber Glass
Striatura exigua (Stimpson, 1850) Ribbed Striate
Striatura ferrea E. S. Morse, 1864 Black Striate
Striatura milium (E. S. Morse, 1859) Fine-ribbed Striate (40)
Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss
Appalachina sayana (Pilsbry, 1906) Spike-lip Crater (41)
Euchemotrema fraternum (Say, 1821) Upland Pillsnail
Neohelix albolabris (Say, 1817) Whitelip
 
Under rocks, wall near sidewalk to front door of The Homestead. H. Lee! 9/11/04:
Cochlicopa lubrica (Müller, 1774) Glossy Pillar (figure 8)

Cochlicopa lubrica (Müller, 1774) Glossy Pillar

Vallonia excentrica Sterki, 1893 Iroquois Vallonia (42; added 9/11/04)
Nesovitrea electrina (Gould, 1841) Amber Glass
Zonitoides nitidus (Müller, 1774) Black Gloss

Thus the collections made at Mt. Aeolus and around the Homestead (1965 - 2004) have added 15 county landsnail records (total now 42 of the state's 54; a little over 77%), of which five are new Vermont state records, which now makes 20 of these Vermont species "unique" to Bennington Co.  These addenda further dwarf second-place Windsor (42 and 20 vs. 20 and [now] 3 respectively).

    While the obvious cause to this geographic inequity is bias in collection effort, this account demonstrates the scope of poverty in knowledge of a part of natural history  - and that a practical remedy is available.  Further, it chronicles the process and outcome of a strategic collection plan - in this case based on the anticipated recycling of a calcium resource that lay biologically dormant for nearly half a billion years.

* Read more of C. B. Adams' tragically short life in the Sep.-Oct., 2003 Shell-O-Gram.

** Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, P. M. Mikkelsen, R. J. Neves, C. F. E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F. G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J. D. Williams, 1998.  Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks, 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland.

*** First time ever collected and first time in the collection of H. G. Lee.

**** These species, Oxyloma retusum and Triodopsis tridentata, are the two species (of 27) indicated for Bennington Co. by Hubricht (1985) which were not collected by me in 1961.

+ Identification corrected to Vertigo bollesiana (Morse, 1865), Delicate Vertigo, on 28 June, 2008.

Hubricht, L., 1985, The distributions of the native land mollusks of the Eastern United States. Fieldiana 24(1359): pp. 1-191 + viii. June 28.

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