Carychium arboreum Dourson, 2012 Tree Thorn (right)

and

Carychium exile H. C. Lea, 1842 Ice Thorn (left and center)

Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM)

Carychium exile H. C. Lea, 1842 Ice ThornCarychium arboreum Dourson, 2012Carychium exile H. C. Lea, 1842 Ice Thorn

    Paint Rock River system, Estill Fork, 1 mi N. Estillfork, Jackson County, Alabama (left to right: C. exile 1.54 mm., C. exile 1.44 mm. and C. arboreum 1.77 mm. in height). Bob Winters! 17 March, 2015. Specimens culled by H. G. Lee, and SEM's produced in collaboration with Dr. Ann Heatherington, Dept. of Geology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Burch, J.B. and  A.S. Van Devender, 1980. Identification of Eastern North American Land Snails: The Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and Pulmonata (Actophila). Transactions of the POETS Society 2: 33-80.. 2 Jan.                                                                                          <http://molluskconservation.org/PUBLICATIONS/WALKERANA/Vol1/walkerana%20vol1%20no2%2033-80.PDF>

Dourson, D.C., 2012. Four New Land Snail Species from the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 128(1): 1-10. <
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Hubricht, L., 1963. Carychium exile and Carychium exiguum. The Nautilus 76(3):108-109. <
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Nekola, J.C., 2014. Overview of North American terrestrial gastropod fauna. American Malacological Bulletin 32(2): 225-235. 24 Sept.     <
http://sev.lternet.edu/~jnekola/nekola%20pdf/amb-32-225-235. pdf>

Nekola, J.C. and M. Barthel, 2002. Morphometric analysis of the genus Carychium in the Great Lakes region of North America. Journal of Conchology 37(5): 515-531. <
http://sev.lternet.edu/~jnekola/nekola%20pdf/SIZE.pdf>

Weigand, AM, M.-C. Goetze, and A. Jochum, 2012: Outdated but established?! Conchologically driven species delineations in microgastropods (Carychiidae, Carychium). Organisms Diversity and Evolution 12: 377386. <
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13127-011-0070- 2> [subscription required for full text]

Weigand, A.M., A. Jochum, R. Slapnik, J. Schnitzler, E. Zarza, and A. Klussmann-Kolb, 2013. Evolution of Microgastropods (Ellobioidea, Carychiidae): integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic and evolutionary hypotheses. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 18. 23 January.  <
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/18>

Weigand, A.M., A. Jochum, and A. Klussmann-Kolb, 2014. DNA Barcoding Cleans House Through the Carychiidae (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea). American Malacological Bulletin 32(2): 236-245. 24 Sept. <
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.4003/006.032. 0215>

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