Shelling Sequel: Snailer Schroeder's shelled species survey soars significantly since second stage started (soil samples sorted)

By Harry G. Lee

    Readers may recall Kentuckian/Jacksonville Shell Club member Lori Schroeder's amusing narrative of her earliest days as a landsnailer (Schroeder, 2005). The writer claims some responsibility for this initiation, which was met with no little reluctance on  Lori's part. Well, before long, the ends justified the means (and once-daunting rigors), and a nice Nelson Co., Kentucky collection eventuated. The 22 species are discussed in her article, and most are illustrated.

    Not entirely sure Lori had yet reached the status of consummate landsnailer, the writer entreated her on a few occasions to amplify her project and become a "saturation" collector. This means supplementing the traditional method of collecting by visual surveillance (including deep in grasses, leaf mold, under logs and rock piles) with sampling of "duff," which means gathering up dirt, grass, leaf litter, etc. without particular regard to its visible contents, stowing it in bags, and, after suitable processing, examining the contents systematically under high magnification. This method has been put to use and consistently has approximately doubled the land snail species diversity in a variety of habitats and geographic areas (Lee, 1990; 2006).

    Late last summer, Lori, with assistance from her hubby, Jeff, revisited the collecting area and did the field work. Eleven Ziploc bags - each containing a pint-sized duff sample - were presented to the writer later that month during the North Carolina Shell Show.

    The analysis of the contents of this raw material will allow some discussion. First the basic data:

Sample 1. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) small outcropping along road, E side spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as sample 2):
[macrosnails lacking + 9]
1 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905 File Thorn*
1 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
1 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo*
2 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone*
3 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
1 Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph*
1 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate*

Sample 2. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) small outcropping along road, E side spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as sample 1):
[macrosnails lacking + 7]
3 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
2 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot**
2 Euconulus dentatus (Sterki, 1893) Toothed Hive**
4 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
4
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia
indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) Southeast Gem**

Samples 1 and 2. (E of pond; ~ 1000 mL) microsnails combined:
1 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn*
4 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
1 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo*
2 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone*
2 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot**
2 Euconulus dentatus (Sterki, 1893) Toothed Hive**
7 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
5
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (
G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
2 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph*

1 Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) Southeast Gem**
1 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate*

12 species: * sample 1 only; ** sample 2 only (7 from one sample only)

Sample 3. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) exposed rocks, hillside S of spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as samples 4 and 5):
[macrosnails lacking + 9]
1 Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn
1 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
2 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
3 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
2 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone
2 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
1
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
3 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate

Sample 4. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) exposed rocks, hillside S of spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as samples 3 and 5) [4 + 4]:
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Anguispira kochi (Pfeiffer, 1845) Banded Tiger
Inflectarius inflectus (Say, 1821) Shagreen
Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Toothed Globe

1 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
3 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
2 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
2 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate

Sample 5. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) exposed rocks, hillside S of spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as samples 3 and 4) [2 + 9]:
Inflectarius inflectus (Say, 1821) Shagreen
Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Toothed Globe
Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth, 1852) Magnolia Threetooth

1 Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
1 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
1 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone
1 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
1 Discus patulus (Deshayes, 1830) Domed Disc
1 Lucilla species
1 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
2
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph

Samples 3, 4, and 5. (Hillside S of pond; ~ 1500 mL) microsnails combined:
1 Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn
2 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn**
2 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth*
1 Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth***
4 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
3 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone
3 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot***
1 Discus patulus (Deshayes, 1830) Domed Disc***
1 Lucilla species**
4 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
3
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
3 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph***
1 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
5 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate
15 species: * sample 3 only; ** sample 4 only; *** sample 5 only (eight from one sample only)

Sample 6. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) "Anguispira Rock," hillside, small valley W of spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as samples 7 and 8) [4 + 21]:
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Discus patulus (Deshayes, 1830) Domed Disc
Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button
Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Toothed Globe

3 Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn
4 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
1 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
1 Gastrocopta corticaria (Say, 1817) Bark Snaggletooth
3 Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
1 Gastrocopta procera (Gould, 1840) Wing Snaggletooth
5 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
1 Vallonia perspectiva Sterki, 1893 Thin-lip Vallonia
2 Punctum blandianum Pilsbry, 1900 Brown Spot
15 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
1
Lucilla cf. jacksoni (Hubricht, 1962)
2 Lucilla cf. singleyana (Pilsbry, 1890) cf. Smooth Coil
1 Lucilla species
5 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
3
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
3 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph
1 Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) Southeast Gem
2 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
6 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate

Sample 7. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) "Anguispira Rock," hillside, small valley W of spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as samples 6 and 8) [3 + 13]:
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button
Xolotrema obstrictum (Say, 1821) Sharp Wedge

6 Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn
7 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
14 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
1 Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
5 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
1 Punctum blandianum Pilsbry, 1900 Brown Spot
11 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
4 Helicodiscus notius notius Hubricht, 1962 Tight Coil
3 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
3 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
4 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
2 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate
1 Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss

Sample 8. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) "Anguispira Rock," hillside, small valley W of spring-fed pond. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 (same station as samples 6 and 7) [8 +11]:
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button
Ventridens collisella (Pilsbry, 1896) Sculptured Dome
Inflectarius inflectus (Say, 1821) Shagreen
Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Toothed Globe
Neohelix albolabris (Say, 1817) Whitelip
Xolotrema obstrictum (Say, 1821) Sharp Wedge
Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry, 1940 Dished Threetooth

4 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
4 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
2 Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
3 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
1 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone
6 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
3 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
2
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
3 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
3 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate

Samples 6, 7, and 8 ("Anguispira Rock;" ~ 1500 mL) microsnails combined:
9 Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn
15 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
19 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
1 Gastrocopta corticaria (Say, 1817) Bark Snaggletooth*
3 Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth
1 Gastrocopta procera (Gould, 1840) Wing Snaggletooth*
10 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
1 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone***
1 Vallonia perspectiva Sterki, 1893 Thin-lip Vallonia*
3 Punctum blandianum Pilsbry, 1900 Brown Spot
32 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
4 Helicodiscus notius notius Hubricht, 1962 Tight Coil**
1
Lucilla cf. jacksoni (Hubricht, 1962)*
2 Lucilla cf. singleyana (Pilsbry, 1890) cf. Smooth Coil*
1 Lucilla species*
11 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
5
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
9 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph
1 Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) Southeast Gem
7 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
11 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate
1 Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817 ) Quick Gloss**
23 species: *sample 6 only; **sample 7 only; ***sample 8 only (nine from one sample only)

Sample 9. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) base of exposed rock, "Creek-North." Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 [8 + 9]:
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button
Ventridens pilsbryi Hubricht, 1964 Yellow Dome
Euchemotrema fraternum (Say, 1824) Upland Pillsnail
Inflectarius inflectus (Say, 1821) Shagreen
Mesodon thyroidus (Say, 1817) White-lip Globe
Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth, 1852) Magnolia Threetooth
Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry, 1940 Dished Threetooth

1 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
2 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone
1 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
1
Lucilla cf. jacksoni (Hubricht, 1962)
1
Euconulus
trochulus (Reinhardt, 1883) Silk Hive
1 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
1
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph
1 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
1 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate

Sample 10. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) base of exposed rock, "Creek-South." Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007 [2 + 12]:
Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button

1 Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn
3 Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn
1 Columella simplex (Gould, 1841) Toothless Column
1 Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth
3 Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo
1 Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone
1 Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot
1 Euconulus dentatus (Sterki, 1893) Toothed Hive
1
Euconulus trochulus (Reinhardt, 1883) Silk Hive
3 Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule
3 Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph
2 Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate

Sample 11. USA, Kentucky, Nelson Co., Bardstown, Chumbley-Stauble Properties. Soil sample (~ 500 mL) Chumbley fence row. Lori and Jeff Schroeder! 15 Sept., 2007:
[2 + microsnails lacking]
Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button
Xolotrema obstrictum (Say, 1821) Sharp Wedge

Consolidated list of microspecies (excluding the Domed Disc, an intermediate-sized species which was also collected by visual reconnaissance on this occasion) taken from the eleven soil samples (5.5 L; nos. 1 - 10; no. 11 lacked microsnails) from the five productive stations):

11     Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 Appalachian Thorn    species image
21     Carychium nannodes G. Clapp, 1905. File Thorn   species image
1       Columella simplex (Gould, 1841) Toothless Column [10]*   species image
24     Gastrocopta contracta (Say, 1822) Bottleneck Snaggletooth    species image
1       Gastrocopta corticaria (Say, 1817) Bark Snaggletooth
4       Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1822) Comb Snaggletooth   species image
1       Gastrocopta procera (Gould, 1840) Wing Snaggletooth [6]*    species image
18
     Vertigo gouldii (A. Binney, 1843) Variable Vertigo   species image
1       Vallonia perspectiva Sterki, 1893 Thin-lip Vallonia [6]*   species image
9       Strobilops labyrinthicus (Say, 1817) Maze Pinecone   species image
     Punctum blandianum Pilsbry, 1900 Brown Spot [6, 7]**   species image
39     Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Small Spot   species image
4       Helicodiscus notius notius Hubricht, 1962 Tight Coil [7]*   species image
2       
Lucilla cf. jacksoni (Hubricht, 1962)     species image
2       Lucilla cf. singleyana (Pilsbry, 1890) cf. Smooth Coil [6]*   species image
1       Lucilla species [6]*
3       Euconulus dentatus (Sterki, 1893) Toothed Hive   species image
2       
Euconulus trochulus (Reinhardt, 1883) Silk Hive      species image
26     Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Tiny Granule   species image
9       
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (G. Clapp, 1919) Hill Glyph     species image
18     Glyphyalinia indentata (Say, 1822) Carved Glyph   species image
     Glyphyalinia lewisiana (G. Clapp, 1908) Pale Glyph   species image
     Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) Southeast Gem   species image
8       Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1841) Minute Gem
   species image
20     Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) Southern Striate   species image
1       Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss [7]*   species image
235 specimens of 26 species ranging from one to six mm in size, of which seven were found in only one sample (*) [sample no.]; and one (**) was found in more than one sample but only at one station ["Anguispira Rock"].

    The macrosnails, including the mid-sized (eight mm) Domed Disc, taken as "bycatch" with the soil sample constituted 13 species. They amount to about two-thirds of the originally-reported 22 species, which were then the product of visual surveillance exclusively. The full list of "macro's" follows; those taken incidentally on this "micro" campaign are indented:

Helicina (Olygyra) orbiculata (Say, 1818) Globular Drop
Gastrocopta armifera (Say, 1821) Armed Snaggletooth
Haplotrema concavum (Say, 1821) Gray Lancetooth
         Anguispira alternata (Say, 1817) Flamed Tigersnail
         Anguispira kochi (Pfeiffer, 1846) Banded Tiger
         Discus patulus (Deshayes, 1830) Domed Disc
         Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 Common Button
         Ventridens collisella (Pilsbry, 1896) Sculptured Dome
Ventridens demissus (A. Binney, 1843) Perforate Dome
         Ventridens pilsbryi Hubricht, 1964 Yellow Dome
         Euchemotrema fraternum (Say, 1824) Upland Pillsnail
Euchemotrema leai (A. Binney, 1841) Lowland Pillsnail
         Inflectarius inflectus (Say, 1821) Shagreen
Mesodon clausus (Say, 1821) Yellow Globelet
Mesodon elevatus (Say, 1821) Proud Globe
         Mesodon thyroidus (Say, 1817) White-lip Globe
         Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Toothed Globe
         Neohelix albolabris (Say, 1817) Whitelip
Patera appressa (Say, 1821) Flat Bladetooth
         Xolotrema obstrictum (Say, 1821) Sharp Wedge
         Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth, 1852) Magnolia Threetooth
         Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry, 1940 Dished Threetooth

    Cumulatively there are 48 species found by Lori and Jeff in Nelson Co. Over half of these (27) were exclusive to the soil samples. The total catch on the soil sample field trip was 40 species, and that from "Anguispira Rock," so named because the ground is often strewn with the shells of that snail, was 32 species (23 of 26 micro's and nine of 22 macrospecies). In the experience of the writer, a collection of that many species at a single station (one place at one time) is spectacular.

"Anguispira Rock"     Beyond the marked diversity of species, what can we learn from the distribution of shells among various samples? (1) Some species are consistently more common and “widespread” than others – no surprise here. (2) Certain stations were much more productive than others, and this seems to be a consistent finding across the “duplicate” samples. (3) A significant number of taxa are represented by very few specimens and/or a single locus and would have been missed if six (five productive) stations were not tested and repetitive samples (stations 1-2; 3-5; 6-8) were not made. Two factors come to mind to explain this inhomogeneity – differences in (micro)habitat and undersampling (sheer volume). The relative contributions of these two factors to the collection results could be experimentally tested if there were sufficient time and manpower; however, there is a simpler empirical lesson. It appears certain that a more generous and microhabitat-diverse sampling at “Anguispira Rock” will very likely produce even more diversity – perhaps exceeding the much-heralded “35 species ceiling” informally held as gospel by many land snail specialists in the eastern USA. This asymptote can be put to the test by an all-out single-visit campaign next spring or summer. Who knows; maybe Lori and Jeff can do it – and maybe they’ll ask for some human resources assistance from other Jacksonville Shell Club members? The writer, having demonstrated the aptness of the sobriquet “Dirty Harry,” bestowed by Lori, is the first to volunteer – officially, and in print!

    It is painfully clear that Nelson Co., KY has been undercollected historically. Hubricht (1985) recorded only three species of native land snails from Nelson Co., KY: Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1817) Quick Gloss, Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Toothed Globe, and Triodopsis tennesseensis (Walker and Pilsbry, 1902) Budded Threetooth. Thus 46 of the 48 species are "new county records vs. Hubricht (1985). All species are "new county records" vs Branson (1973) as he did not report any land snail from Nelson Co. Lori and Jeff have increased the known biodiversity of this jurisdiction  fifteen-fold! In fact, other than the region of Mammoth Cave, it is now arguably the best-known Kentucky precinct for land snails.

Acknowledgements: Besides her obvious contributions made in the field, Lori Schroeder is due my gratitude for improving the accuracy and clarity of an earlier draft as is Lynn Scheu of Louisville, KY, who spared me embarrassment by identifying some grammatical gaffes. Jeff Schroeder contributed several photographs of the collecting stations, David Kirsh took did all the snail photography, Bill Frank digitally edited the images used in this report, and Jeff Nekola made corrections to my species identifications. To these gentlemen I am also indebted.

Branson, B. A., 1973.  Kentucky land Mollusca. Checklist, distribution, and keys for identification. Kentucky Dept. Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort. pp 1-67 incl. distributional maps.

Hubricht, L., 1985. The distributions of the native land mollusks of the Eastern United States. Fieldiana 24(1359): pp. 1-191 + viii. June 28.

Lee, H. G., 1990. Toward an improved strategy for landsnail collecting. Shell-O-Gram 31(1): 3, 6-8. Jan.-Feb.

Lee, H. G., 2006. The urban shelling experience: wrack up a new method - if you get my drift. Shell-O-Gram 47(1): 3,-4. Jan.-Feb.

Schroeder, L., 2005. The reluctant explorer. Shell-O-Gram 46(1):1, 3-4. Jan. Feb.

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